Albwost Books logo Sacred Violence - in Christianity and Islam,” - by Tony Harwood-Jones
Author's note
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Sacred Violence in Christianity and Islam

Notes and References

  1. Father Gaspar Garcia Garcia Laviana, a Spanish priest of the Sacred Heart Congregation, resigning his parish and joining the Sandanista Front of Nicaragua. Quoted in Phillip Berryman, The Religious Roots of Rebellion; Christians in Central American Revolutions (Maryknoll, New York, 1984), pp. 76-7.
  2. Berryman, p.347.
  3. The story of First Lieutenant Islambouli is told in Robin Wright, Sacred Rage; The Crusade of Modern Islam (New York, 1985), pp.173-5 and pp. 181-4.
  4. Wright, pp.183-4.
  5. Wright, p.182.
  6. Qu'ran 5:6, from the Koran, translated with notes by N.J.Dawood, Fourth Edition (London, 1974).
  7. Compare Qu’ran 112, “Allah is One, the Eternal God. He begot none, nor was He begotten. None is equal to Him.” Also Qu’ran 5:17, “Unbelievers are those who declare: ‘Allah is the Messiah, the son of Mary.’ Say: ‘Who could prevent Allah from destroying the Messiah, the son of Mary, together with his mother and all the people of the earth?’”
  8. Colossians 1:15-19, quoting from the Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version (New York, 1952).
  9. Qu'ran 16:89.
  10. Qu'ran 41:41.
  11. Shi’ite Islam believes that the Qu’ran is “created” and not “eternal.” Even so, according to this view, the words of the Qu’ran and the ideas they convey originate with God, and represent God’s views exactly. See Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi’i Islam; The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi’ism. (New Haven, 1985), p.176, and Malise Ruthven, Islam in the World (London, 1984), pp.117, 198-9.
  12. Bruce Chatwin, The Songlines (New York, 1987), p.181.
  13. In this, the author is following Ruthven. See Islam in the World, pp. 101-2. Certainly everything available to me in English either ignores issues of form- and textual-criticism, or rejects it out of hand.
  14. cf Qu’ran 4:46: “Of the Jews there are those who displace words from their (right) places...;” Qu’ran 5:14: “...those who say, ‘We are Christians, We made a covenant,’ but they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of...;” and Qu’ran 5:15: “O followers of the Book! indeed Our Apostle has come to you making clear to you much of what you concealed of the Book....”
  15. Harvey Cox, A Feast of Fools (Cambridge, 1969), p. 139.
  16. Qu’ran 3:64. Ibadiyah's approach has been modelled on the position of Muhammad Abdul al Ra’uf, “Judaism and Christianity in the perspective of Islam,” Trialogue of the Abrahamic Faiths; Papers presented to the Islamic Studies Group of American Academy of Religion, ed. Isma’il Raji al Faruqi (Washington, 1402/1982), pp.27-8.
  17. Ibadiyah is quoting the Qu’ran here: “Those of the Israelites who disbelieved were cursed by David and Jesus, the son of Mary: they cursed them because they rebelled and committed evil...” (Qu’ran 5:78).
  18. “Condemnation of the Scribes and Pharisees...,” Bible: Matthew 23:13-36; “the people of Chorazin and Bethsaida...,” Matthew11:21-24; “tying a millstone...,” Luke 17:1-2.
  19. Qu’ran 2:190.
  20. The wording of this paragraph is taken directly from from a 1984 statement by Abdullah Naseef, secretary general of the Muslim World League in Mecca. The following is the exact wording of the statement, as given in Wright, p.163:
    “Islam condemns violence of any nature... It is unthinkable that any honest [Islamic] scholar would condone crimes against humanity, destruction of installations and terrorism against innocent people committed under the pretext of jihad. Jihad in Islam was instituted to further the causes of justice, dignity and Koranic law through a formal declaration of war against forces bent on undermining these values and rights.”
  21. “Six hundred...” Muslim scholars universally acknowledge that all the men of the Banu Quraiza Jewish community were killed. The number of individuals involved is not often indicated, but Ruthven, p.78, says it was six hundred. Muhammad did not personally order the executions, but he acquiesced in the decision.
  22. This part of Ibadiyah’s explanation is styled after an account of the event in Afzalur Rahman, Muhammad; Encyclopaedia of Seerah Vol.1 (London, 1981), pp.653-4.
  23. The author has not personally checked the Torah regarding punishment for communal treason. It is Afzalur Rahman’s argument (see note #22) that the punishment was consistent with Jewish Law.
  24. Bible: Mark 8:34.
  25. Bible: Matthew 5:39.
  26. Bible: Joshua 6:21.
  27. Bible: 1 Samuel 15:17-34, and 1 Samuel 16:14-18.
  28. Bible: John 2:15.
  29. Bible: Matthew 10:34.
  30. Bible: Luke 22:38.
  31. The “Servant Songs” are Bible: Isaiah 42:1-4; 49:1-6; 50:4-11; and 52:13-53:12. That Jesus was fond of reading in Isaiah is indicated by his use of that prophet in a public sermon (Bible: Luke 4:18-9).
  32. Bible: Matthew 5:21-2.
  33. Bible: Exodus 21:24, Leviticus 24:20, and Deuteronomy 19:21.
  34. Bible: Matthew 5:39.
  35. Bible: Matthew 18:21-2.
  36. Bible: Colossians 1:19.
  37. Bible: Romans 12:20-1.
  38. Bible: 1 Peter 2:20-1.
  39. Bible: Mark 8:34.
  40. Bible: John 18:36.
  41. See Roland H. Bainton, Christian Attitudes toward War and Peace, (New York, 1960), pp.67-8).
  42. Bainton, p.78.
  43. Bible: Romans 12:19.
  44. Bible: Luke 1:52.
  45. Bible: Romans 13:4.
  46. Bible: John 18:36. See earlier comment.
  47. See Bainton, p.90.
  48. Bainton, p.98.
  49. Bainton, p.98.
  50. Bainton, pp.96-7.
  51. Bainton, p.92.
  52. Bainton, p.98. Bainton has a rather apt phrase to describe the required attitude. The Christian magistrate, he says is required to do his duty with “a mournful mood.”
  53. Quoted in Bamber Gascoigne, The Christians (London, 1977), p.113.
  54. Quoted in Bainton, p.114.
  55. Gascoigne, p.113.
  56. Quoted in Berryman, p.315.
  57. A remark attributed to one Sergio Ramirez, quoted in Berryman, p.19.
  58. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship (New York, 1963), p.165.
  59. Bible: John 16:13.
  60. Qu’ran 6:151. The rendering is given by Ruthven, p.228.
  61. Qu’ran 6:151, underline added for emphasis.
  62. “...after the tenth century there gradually developed the doctrine, sanctioned, of course by the ijma’ of the scholars, that the gates of ijtihad (creative interpretation of the law) had been closed.” Ruthven, p.158.
  63. Ruthven, p.223 ff.
  64. So called by a recent Shaykh Al-Azhar, Mahmud Shaltut, in “Koran and Fighting,” trans. Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Mediaeval and Modern Islam (Leiden, 1977), p.42.
  65. Qu’ran 22:39.
  66. Qu’ran 22:40.
  67. Qu’ran 2:251.
  68. Qu’ran 2:190.
  69. Cf. Qu’ran 9:13, “Will you not fight against those who have broken their oaths and conspired to banish the Apostle? They were the first to attack you.”
  70. The figures are from Ruthven, p.148.
  71. Qu’ran 5:38.
  72. See Ruthven, p.311.
  73. Qu’ran 8:39.
  74. Qu’ran 9:5.
  75. Qu’ran 10:99.
  76. See above, note #20.  Not only is this the definition given by a Secretary General of the Muslim World League, but it is the standard definition of Jihad among the Shi’a: “jihad – holy war undertaken to expand the boundaries of Islam or to defend it against an attacker,” Momen, p.xx.
  77. See Seyyed H. Nasr, Traditional Islam in the Modern World (1987). p.30.
  78. A hadith runs: “When the wife becomes pregnant, her reward is fasting, prayer and jihad.” Quoted in Ruthven, p.169.
  79. As Canadians were going into World War II, Prime Minister MacKenzie King is reported to have said, “Conscription, if necessary, but not necessarily conscription.”
  80. Ruthven, p.249.
  81. Wright, p.203.
  82. Qu’ran 2:216.
  83. Qu’ran 4:74.
  84. Qu’ran 4:95.
  85. Qu’ran 2:191.
  86. Marcel A. Boisard, Humanism in lslam (American Trust Publications, Indianapolis, 1988), p.178.